Scientific Name of Fish – Popular Name – Family and Geographical Distribution

Scientific Name of Fish

The technical or scientific name of fish is invariably a synonym for its common name, but it is not the same thing. The goldfish belongs to the class of cichlids, a group that includes such beautiful but annoyingly timid freshwater fishes as the tangy-bellied platypus, the black-banded kingfisher, the yellowtail shark, and the silver dollars.

Armau

Armau
Armau
  • Popular Name – Buttoned, Cuiu-cuiu, Armado, Armau
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Oxydoras spp.
  • Family – Doradidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon, Araguaia-Tocantins and Prata Basins.

Description

Leather fish. The main characteristic of Doradidas is the presence of a row of bony plates in the middle region of the flanks. In the center of each of these plates is a curved spine facing backward. In addition to these plates, some species of the family also have the body partially or completely covered by bony plates, in this case without the spines. Among the doradids, there are species with 3-4cm too large species, with more than 1m in total length and 20kg, as is the case of Oxydoras niger, the largest Doradidae in the Amazon. In the Pantanal (Silver basin) there is Oxydoras knee, a little smaller, with about 70cm. The genus Oxydoras is distinguished by its uniform dark gray coloration, narrow head, long snout, lower mouth, large eyes, and the presence of short barbels.

Ecology

Omnivorous fish. The lower, toothless mouth and long snout serve to get food: insect larvae and other invertebrates, including shrimp and mollusks, which live amid the debris at the bottom of rivers and lakes. They are found in a variety of habitats, including flooded forests, floodplain lakes, and canals when shoals go up rivers. Oxydoras niger, the cuiu-cuiu as it is known in the Amazon basin, is highly appreciated as a food by the local population and is frequently found in markets and fairs. Because of its large size, it has some importance for the export market.

  • Equipment – The equipment is of the medium/medium heavy type; 20 to 30 lb. lines; hooks from No. 2/0 to 6/0; leaded olive bottom line.
  • Baits – Natural baits: earthworms, pieces of fish, shellfish.
  • Tips – Be careful with the series of spines located on the sides of the body.

Acara-açu

acara-açu
  • Popular Name – Acará-açu, Apaiari/Oscar
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Astronotus spp.
  • Family – Cichlid
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon, Araguaia-Tocantins and Prata Basins. It was introduced in the dams of the Northeast and in the basin of the São Francisco River.

Description

Scale fish. There are two species identified as belonging to the genus Astronotus: A. ocellatus (Amazon, Araguaia-Tocantins, and Prata basins) and A. crassipinis (Amazon basin). Both have very similar coloring and patterns of spots. The body has irregular vertical dark spots and a large ocellar spot on the upper part of the caudal fin peduncle. Sometimes they have a strong reddish color on the flanks and belly. A. ocellatus is distinguished by the presence of ocelli at the base of the dorsal fin. The ocelli are dark in the center and orange around. Both species reach about 35-40cm in total length and about 1.5kg.

Ecology             

Omnivorous fish, with a strong tendency to carnivores, consuming small fish, insects, crustaceans, and fruits/seeds. They live mainly in floodplain lakes and marginal lakes. They are not migrators. They reach maturity around 10-12 months and spawn more than once a year, with around 1,500-2,000 eggs per spawn. They form couples at the time of reproduction and protect their offspring. Adults are much appreciated as food and fingerlings as ornamental fish.

  • Equipment – Light action rods, 8 to 12 lb. lines; hooks from no. 12 to 20.
  • Baits – Pieces of fish, earthworms, earthworms, chicken giblets, insects and artificial surface and half water
  • baits, such as small plugs and spinners.

Apapa

Apapa
  • Popular Name – Apapá, Sardinhão, Dourada/Herring
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Pellona sardinão) P. castelnaeana (yellow, golden papá, flavipinnis (white papá)
  • Family – Pristigasteridae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon and Araguaia-Tocantins (Pellona castelnaeana and P. flavipinnis) and Prata (P. flavipinnis) basins.

Description

Scale fish; compressed body; Small head; smallmouth, slightly upwards; serrated preventral region; adipose fin and the lateral line usually absent. The two species are easily differentiated by the yellowish color of the yellow apapá and the silvery color of the white apapá, both with a dark back. The yellow apapa reaches more than 60cm in total length; the white apapá is a little smaller, reaching 50cm.

Ecology

Most species in this family are of marine and estuarine origin. Freshwater species are pelagic fish (surface and half water), occurring in rivers, lakes, and flooded forests. Small shoals of apappa are common in rapids. The two species can be found together, with the yellow apapa being more common. They feed on small fish on the surface of the water during twilight hours. The apapá is considered a 2nd class fish, not being important in commercial catches.

  • Equipment – Medium-sized equipment and fast-acting rods are best suited for hooking these fish; 10 to 12 lb. lines; small hooks.
  • Bait – Can be caught with natural baits, small fish or lead-free pieces of bait, and artificial ones such as surface and half water plugs, small spoons and spinners.
  • Tips – Baits must be worked well on the surface of the water. The fisherman needs to be very careful, because, when hooked, these fish usually jump out of the water, escaping easily.

Arowana

Arowana
  • Popular Name – Aruanã
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Osteoglossum bicirrhosum
  • Family – Osteoglossidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon and Araguaia-Tocantins Basins.

Description

Scale fish; very elongated and compressed body; huge mouth; bony and rough tongue, like that of the arapaima; barbels on the tip of the chin; large scales; white coloration, but the scales are reddish at the time of spawning. It reaches about 1m in total length and over 2.5kg. In the Rio Negro there is also another darker colored species O. Ferreira.

Ecology

The Arowana lives on the edge of lakes, along with igapós or aquatic grasses, always on the lookout for insects (especially beetles) and spiders that fall into the water. It is probably the biggest fish in the world whose diet consists mainly of insects and spiders. Nothing just below the surface with the barbels projecting forward, but the function of the barbels is still unknown. In poorly oxygenated waters, barbels can be used to get oxygen to the surface of the water. The most characteristic aspect of the Arowana’s feeding behavior is the ability to jump out of the water and catch prey still on trunks, branches, and vines. An adult individual can jump more than 1 meter out of the water. The species reproduces during the flood, and males keep eggs and larvae in their mouths (barbels also serve to guide larvae to the male’s mouth when they go out to feed). Fingerlings achieve high commercial value as ornamental fish.

  • Equipment – The equipment must be of the medium type; lines 12, 14 and 17 lb.; hooks 1/0 to 3/0.
  • Bait – This fish can be caught with both natural (fish, shrimp, insects, etc.) and artificial baits, such as surface and half water plugs and spoons.
  • Tips – It is easier to catch the arowana at the edge of lakes and ponds, near logs and aquatic plants. The arowana usually makes spectacular jumps when caught, and the fisherman needs to be very careful when removing the hook from the fish so as not to get hurt.

Bearded

Bearded
  • Popular Name – Barbado, Piranambu, Flatbeard
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Pinirampus pirinampu
  • Family – Pimelodidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon, Araguaia-Tocantins and Prata Basins.

Description

Leather fish. The most striking features are the long, flat barbels, hence the common name, and the very long adipose fin, starting right after the dorsal fin. The color is gray to brown on the back and flanks, lightening in the ventral region. As soon as it is removed from the water, it may have a greenish color on the back. It reaches about 80cm in total length and can reach 12kg, but the average weight varies from 3 to 5kg.

Ecology

The species is common along riverbanks, in front of towns and cities, and, for this reason, it is important for subsistence fishing. It includes several food items in its diet but is usually a very voracious piscivore when attacking fish caught in the nets. In the Madeira River, in the Teotônio Waterfall, shoals of flat-beards appear in November/December.

  • Equipment – The equipment for catching the barbado is of the medium/heavy type, mounted with lead to keep the bait at the bottom. The most suitable lines are 17, 20 and 25 lb. and hooks from n° 4/0 to 8/0.
  • Baits – This fish is only caught with natural baits, such as whole fish or in pieces and earthworm.
  • Tips – It’s a fish that fights a lot. It should be placed on ice soon after being captured because it spoils easily.

Beak

Beak
  • Popular Name – Beak
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Boulengerella spp.
  • Family – Ctenoluciidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon and Tocantins-Araguaia Basins.

Description

Scale fish; elongated and plump body; pointed mouth and quite hard, which makes it difficult to get hooked; dorsal fin located in the posterior half of the body. The color pattern varies from species to species, with B. ocellata showing a spot at the base of the caudal fin. The largest specimens can reach around 1m in total length and 6kg in weight.

Ecology

Pelagic fish, live in the surface and half water, found in current areas along the banks and mouths of rivers and streams, and in lakes. They form small shoals but do not migrate. B. ocellata is a piscivorous and extremely voracious species. It is highly sporty, as it often jumps out of the water before surrendering, but it has no commercial importance.

  • Equipment – Medium and medium/heavy equipment are the most used and the rods must have a rigid action, since the cartilage of the mouth is very difficult to be perforated. Lines must be 14, 17, or 20 lb. and hooks from No. 3/0 to 5/0.
  • Baits – Artificial baits, such as surface and half water plugs, spoons and spinners, are the most used in the capture of the weevil, which also attacks natural baits, such as small fish and pieces of fish.
  • Tips – Friction must be well regulated, because the beak usually takes a lot of line when hooked. The hook must be very sharp, because if the fish is not well hooked, it can come off the hook during the jumps.

Black bass

Black bass
  • Popular Name – Black Bass, Largemouth Bass
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Micropterus salmonoides
  • Family – Centrarchidae
  • Geographical Distribution – The family is endemic to North America. The species was introduced in some reservoirs in the Southeast (São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro) and South (Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul) regions.

Description

Scale fish. The variety introduced in Brazil is the largemouth bass and what makes it different from other species is the size of the mouth, which extends beyond the posterior margin of the eye. Although in the United States it reaches 10kg, in Brazil this species rarely exceeds 3kg.

Ecology

It is considered the most sporting freshwater fish in the United States. It lives close to logs and rocks, preying on every type of organisms it finds, such as fish, snakes, frogs, birds, insects, and even bats. Vision is a very important sense for this species.

  • Equipment – Light and medium action equipment is special and suitable for catching this fish. Lines can range from 10 to 20 lbs.
  • Baits – Among the natural baits, the best are earthworm and lambari. Artificial baits can be plugs, jigs, earthworms, salamanders and spinnerbaits.

Cachara

Cachara
  • Popular Name – Cachara, Surubim/Stripped Catfish
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum
  • Family – Pimelodidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon, Araguaia-Tocantins and Prata Basins.

Description

Leather fish; elongated and plump body; large, flat head. The color is dark gray on the back, lightening towards the belly, being white below the lateral line. It can be separated from the other species of the genus by the pattern of spots: irregular black vertical bands, starting in the dorsal region and extending to below the lateral line. Sometimes it has some rounded or elongated spots at the end of the bands. Large species can reach more than 1m in total length.

Ecology

A piscivorous species, with a preference for scaled fish, but in some regions, shrimp is also an important item in the diet. It occurs in various types of habitats such as wells in river channels, beach shallows, lakes, and flooded forests. It carries out reproductive migration upstream from the beginning of the flood. It is important in commercial and sport fishing.

  • Equipment – The medium/heavy type equipment, as it is a large fish; lines of 17, 20, 25 to 30 lb., prepared with draws and hooks from #6/0 to 10/0.
  • Bait – It is mainly captured with natural fish baits, such as sarapós, muçum, tuviras, lambaris, piaus, curimbatás and minhocuçu. Artificial baits can also be used, such as midwater and bottom plugs, mainly in lakes, ponds and beaches, but in this case, the baits must be worked very close to the bottom.
  • Tips – The care when handling this fish must be doubled, because of the spines of the pectoral and dorsal fins.

Dogfish

  • Popular Name – Dogfish, Fish-dog, Pirandirá/Paraya
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Hydrolycus scomberoides
  • Family – Cynodontidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon and Araguaia-Tocantins Basins. There are four species of Hydrolycus described: H. scomberoides occurs in the Amazon River and tributaries above the mouth of the Tapajós River; H. wallacei occurs in the Rio Negro and in the upper part of the Rio Orinoco basin; H. armatus and H. tatauaia occur in the Amazon basin, the Tocantins and Capim river basins, the Essequibo river (Guiana) and the Orinoco river basin.

Description

Fish with tiny scales; tall and compressed body. The mouth is oblique with a row of teeth and a pair of fangs in the jaw. The tusks are so large that the upper jaw has two holes to accommodate them when the mouth is closed. Large pectoral fins. Uniform silver coloration with an elongated black spot behind the operculum. The largest species are H. armatus and H. tatauaia, which can reach more than 1m in total length.

Ecology

Half-water fish, occurring in channels and beaches of rivers, lakes, and in the flooded forests. A piscivorous species that attacks relatively large prey, sometimes reaching about 40-50% of the predator’s total length. It reaches its first maturity at about 27cm in length and reproduction takes place from November to April. It carries out reproductive migration over great distances upstream. It’s not commercially important.

  • Equipment – The equipment used is of the medium and medium/heavy type; 14, 17, 20 and 25 lb. lines; and hooks from No. 4/0 to 6/0. It is recommended to use steel draws of at least 20cm, as this fish has very sharp teeth.
  • Bait – Can be caught with whole fish or in pieces (lambaris, tuviras, curimbatás, etc.) and with artificial baits, such as half water plugs, poppers and propellers.
  • Tips – Usually jumps out of the water when hooked, but tends to get tired easily. The fisherman must be careful when releasing this fish, because of the sharp teeth. It does not have the habit of looking for entanglements, which makes it easier to catch.

Dog machete

Dog machete
  • Name – Machete-mache, Fish-puppy, Clapboard
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Rhaphiodon vulpinus
  • Family – Cynodontidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon, Araguaia-Tocantins and Prata Basins.

Description

Fish with tiny scales; very elongated and compressed body; large, oblique mouth. Canine teeth, the mandible having a pair of tusks that fit into the upper jaw. The dorsal fin is located in the posterior half of the body, in the same direction as the anal, and long pectoral fins. The medial rays of the caudal fin are elongated to form a filament. Uniform silver coloration, darker in the dorsal region. It reaches 70cm in total length and about 600g.

Ecology

Fish-eating fish. Reproduction occurs from November to March and the first sexual maturation from 24cm in length. It is not important as a commercial species, as it has a lot of spines and little meat.

  • Equipment – Medium type equipment; 14 to 20 lb. lines; hooks from n° 4/0 to 6/0. It is recommended to use a steel tie with at least 20cm.
  • Bait – Can be caught with fish, pieces or whole, and also with surface plugs and half water.
  • Tips – The possibilities of capture are much greater if the hook is made from the bottom up.

Capari

Capari
  • Popular Name – Capari/Stripped Catfish
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum
  • Family – Pimelodidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon Basin.

Description

Leather fish; elongated and plump body; large, flat head. The color is dark gray on the back, lightening towards the belly, being whitish below the lateral line. It can be separated from the other species of the genus by the irregular black spots, like a tiger’s, that start in the dorsal region and extend to below the lateral line. Caparari has a narrowing of the head, which also differentiates it from other species of the genus. Large species, it is the largest species of the genus, reaching more than 1.30m in total length.

Ecology

Fish-eating species. It is found in various types of habitats such as flooded forests, lakes, river channels, and beaches. It carries out spawning migrations upstream during drought or the onset of rains. It is important in commercial and sport fishing.

  • Equipment – Medium/heavy type equipment; 17, 20, 25 to 30 lb. lines, prepared with draws; and, hooks from No. 6/0 to 10/0.
  • Bait – It is mainly captured with natural fish baits, such as sarapós, muçum, tuviras, lambaris, piaus, curimbatás and minhocuçu. It can also be caught with artificial baits, such as midwater and bottom plugs, mainly in lakes, ponds and beaches, but in this case, the baits must be worked very close to the bottom.
  • Tips – The care when handling this fish must be doubled because of the spines of the pectoral and dorsal fins.

Croaker

Croaker
  • Popular Name – Corvina, Hake/Freshwater Croaker
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Plagioscion spp.
  • Family – Sciaenidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon and Araguaia-Tocantins Basins. Introduced and successful in the reservoirs of the Prata and São Francisco basins and in the dams of the Northeast.

Description

The family is mainly marine but has several representatives in freshwater, the genus Plagioscion being the most common. Scale fish; bluish silver coloring; oblique mouth, with a large number of curved and pointed teeth. It has teeth in the pharynx and the anterior part of the branchial arches has sharp projections with a jagged inner margin. Reaches more than 50cm in total length.

Ecology

Sedentary bottom and half water species that form large shoals in the central portion of lakes, ponds, and reservoirs. They feed on fish and shrimp, with a predominance of one or the other depending on the location. Species are very appreciated for their white and delicate meat, and Plagioscion squamosissimus, the most common species, has great commercial importance in the Amazon.

  • Equipment – The equipment used is of the medium type for 14, 17 and 20 lb lines. It is advisable to use more rigid action sticks. The hook can vary from n° 2/0 to 6/0.
  • Baits – Mainly natural baits, such as small fish in pieces or whole (lambaris, freshwater sardines) and shrimp. Occasionally they can be captured with half water plugs and jigs.
  • Tips – The biggest individuals are usually fished at night in deep wells. As the school is often at the bottom, the hook has to be firm so that the fish does not escape.

Curimbatá

Curimbatá
  • Popular Name – Curimbatá, Curimatã, Curimatá, Curimba, Papa-terra
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Prochilodus spp.
  • Family – Prochilodontidae
  • Geographical Distribution
    – 
    Amazon and Araguaia-Tocantins (P. nigricans), Prata (P. lineatus, P. scrofa, P. platensis) and São Francisco (curimatá-pacu P. marggravii, P. affinnis, P. vimboides) basins. They were introduced in the dams of the Northeast.

Description

Scale fish. The main characteristic of the family is the protractile mouth, in the shape of a suction cup, with fleshy lips, on which are implanted numerous tiny teeth arranged in rows. The scales are rough and the color is silvery. Body height and length vary by species. It can reach from 30 to 80cm in total length depending on the species.

Ecology

Detritivorous species feed on organic matter and microorganisms associated with mud from the bottom of lakes and riverbanks. They carry out long reproductive migrations. They are captured in large schools, being commercially important species, mainly for low-income populations.

  • Equipment – Amateur fishing is practiced mainly in riverbanks with simple equipment: bamboo poles, 2-4m long. The line, usually about 50cm longer than the rod, ranges from 0.30-0.40mm. The hooks are small and thin to make hooking easier, from n° 8 to 2.
  • Bait – As they are detritivorous fish, they do not attack artificial baits. The best bait is the dough of wheat flour baited on the hook halfway up the collar. It should be consistent, neither too hard nor too soft.
  • Tips – These are not easy fish to catch because they catch the bait very lightly, requiring a lot of calm and sensitivity to make the hook at the right moment.

Goldfish

Goldfish
  • Popular Name – Goldfish
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Carassius auratus
  • Family – Cyprinid 
  • Geographical Distribution – Prata Basin (S. maxillosus) and São Francisco Basin (S. brasiliensis).

Description

Goldfish scientific name Carassius auratus. Goldfish belong to the Cyprinid family and have been aquarium fish for more than a thousand years now, during which several subspecies of goldfish have appeared. It should be noted that the name “goldfish” is actually quite misleading, as there are several color combinations besides the most famous reddish-orange one. There are different types of goldfish also for the shape of the fins and the tail.

Ecology

It is therefore not surprising that there are so many goldfish farms today; in China alone over 350-400 species are known.

  • Equipment – Goldfish can be up to 35 or 40cm in length, but many aquarium species only reach 20-25cm. This means that those who have goldfish must have a tank of the right size. In principle, a single goldfish needs a tank with a minimum capacity of 55 liters. For each additional fish, 38 liters more must be added.
  • Baits – Among the artificial baits, the ones that present the best results are the half water plugs and the spoons, which can be used in trolling or throwing towards the banks. Natural baits such as tuvira, sarapó, lambari, curimbatá and piraputanga are also very productive. They can be used in the round, with a small lead to sink the line and keep it in the water column, or by letting the boat roll close to the shore, where the bait is thrown repeatedly towards the antlers.
  • Tips – When hooked, these fish often take spectacular leaps out of the water. At that moment, the fisherman cannot bend the line, because as the dorado’s mouth is difficult to be pierced, the fish often manages to “spit” the bait. The best fishing spots are rapid waters, rapids and waterfalls, as well as the banks of ravines, where trolling is practiced with artificial bait.

Jacunda

Jacunda
  • Popular Name – Jacundá
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Crenicichla spp.
  • Family – Cichlid
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon, Araguaia-Tocantins, Prata and São Francisco Basins.

Description

Scale fish; elongated body; largemouth, with the mandible slightly larger than the upper jaw. The posterior edge of the preoperculum is serrated. The coloration and pattern of spots vary with the species: they may have vertical bands on the flanks, but always have a darker longitudinal band along the body, which extends from the eye to the peduncle of the caudal fin, and an ocellus on the upper part. of the caudal peduncle. They reach about 40cm in total length.

Ecology

Carnivorous species, which feed on small fish, shrimp, and other invertebrates. Like all cichlids, they are sedentary species, which live in still waters (lakes, lakes, and river backwaters). They are relatively important in commercial and recreational fishing.

  • Equipment – Light/medium type equipment; 10 to 14 lb. lines; hooks from n° 1 to 4/0.
  • Bait – Small fish (lambaris, yams) or pieces of fish, earthworms, and half-water and surface plugs.
  • Tips – The jacundá live near antlers and stone burrows. They are extremely territorial fish and can always be found in the same place.

Jatuarana

Jatuarana
  • Popular Name – Jatuarana
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Brycon sp.
  • Family – Characidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon Basin.

Description

Scale fish; elongated and slightly compressed body. Coloration is uniform silver, with a dark spot located behind the operculum. The fins are orange, with the exception of the tail fin which is gray. The teeth are strong and multicusped, with several rows in the upper jaw, a characteristic of the genus Brycon. It reaches about 1m in total length and 8kg.

Ecology

Omnivorous species: consumes fruits, seeds, insects, and sometimes small fish. It carries out reproductive and trophic migrations. At the beginning of the flood, it forms large shoals for spawning. It is important commercially and as a sport fish.

  • Equipment – Medium type equipment; 10 to 17 lb. lines; and, hooks from n° 2/0 to 6/0.
  • Baits – artificial baits, such as spoons and plugs; natural baits, fruits, flowers, insects, earthworm, heart and beef liver in strips.
  • Tips – It can be found in the rapids and backwaters of rivers. When hooked, the tendency is to take the bait to the bottom.

Jau

Jau
  • Popular Name – Jaú/Giant Catfish
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Zungaro zungaro and Zungaro jahu
  • Family – Pimelodidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon, Tocantins-Araguaia and Prata Basins. Widely distributed in South America, there are two species Zungaro zungaro in the Amazon basin and Tocantins-Araguaia and Zungaro jahu in the Prata basin (Paraná, Paraguay and Uruguay).

Description    

Leather fish; in Large size, can reach more than 1.5m in total length and 100kg. The body is thick and short; the head large and flat. The color varies from light greenish-brown to dark on the back, but the belly is white; young individuals have light spots scattered over the back.

Ecology

Fish-eating species. It lives in the river channel, mainly in the wells of waterfalls, where it goes during the low water period, following the schools of Characidae (especially curimbatá) that migrate upstream. In the Amazon it is not commercially important, the meat is considered “remoy”, but it is appreciated in the Southeast of Brazil. The fishing pressure by slaughterhouses that export jaú filet is very high and has been responsible for the drop in the catch of the species in the Amazon.

  • Equipment – Heavy action rods; lines from 30 to 50 lb.; recessed hooks n° 10/0 to 14/0. Olive-type lead, weighing from 300 to 1,000g, should be used, depending on the depth and strength of the water.
  • Baits – Only natural baits, such as small scale fish, tuvira, muçum and also earthworm.
  • Tips – This species is captured in the wells just below the rapids, mainly at night. It is very important that the bait stays at the bottom.

Jundia

Jundia
  • Popular name –  Jundiá, Nhurundia, Mandi-Guaru, Bagre-Sapo
  • Scientific Name of Fish –  Rhamdia quelen.
  • Family –  Doradidae
  • Geographical Distribution –  South America, including the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul.

Description

The Jundiá fish is a leathery fish. It has a dark gray color and a white belly. It stands out for being one of the most promising in cultivation through Aquaculture, as it has fast growth, easy adaptation to intensive breeding, rustic, easily induced to reproduction, with high fertilization rate, also having tasty meat with low content of fat and few
pimples. It can reach 50cm in length and 3kg in weight.

Ecology

It is an omnivorous fish, with a tendency to piscivore, and benthic, a substrate speculator. It also feeds on terrestrial and aquatic insects, crustaceans and plant remain, as well as fish such as lumbar is and guarus. Jundiá fish spawn in places with clean, calm water and a rocky bottom. No parental care. It has multiple spawning, with two reproductive peaks per year (one in summer and one in spring).

  • Equipment –  Light/light medium type equipment; 10 to 14 lb. lines; and, hooks up to n° 2/0.
  • Baits –  Natural baits, such as earthworms, small fish or in pieces, cheese.
  • Tips –  These fish must be handled with care, as the spines of the dorsal and pectoral fins can cause painful injuries.

Jurupensem

jurupensem
  • Popular name – Jurupensém, duckbill
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Sorubim cf. lime
  • Family – Pimelodidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon, Araguaia-Tocantins and Prata Basins.

Description

Leather fish; plump body; very long and flathead. The mouth is rounded, the upper jaw is larger than the mandible. The eyes are located laterally. The back is dark brown, almost black, turning yellow and then whitish below the lateral line. It has a dark longitudinal band in the middle of the body, which extends from the eye to the upper part of the caudal fin. The fins are reddish or pink. Medium-sized species, reaching about 70cm in total length.

Ecology

Carnivorous species feed on small fish, shrimp, and other invertebrates. In the Amazon basin, it can form large shoals, which go up rivers at the end of the dry season and the beginning of the flood, when it spawns. The shoals tend to be concentrated in the wells below the rapids, and at that time they are caught by commercial fishermen, which makes them eventually appear in large quantities in the markets, but they are not of much commercial importance.

  • Equipment – The equipment is lightweight; 17 to 25 lb. lines; No. 4, 2, 1/0 hooks.
  • Baits – Natural baits, lambari, tuvira, earthworm, earthworm, pieces of heart and beef liver.

Jurupoca

Jurupoca
  • Popular name – Jurupoca, Jerepoca, Braço-de-moça, Liro
  • Scientific Name of Fish– Hemisorubim platyrhynchos
  • Family – Pimelodidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon, Araguaia-Tocantins and Prata Basins.

Description

Leather fish; medium-sized, reaching about 60cm in total length and 3kg. It has a characteristic that makes it different from other pimelodids: the mandible is slightly larger than the upper jaw, making the mouth open face upwards. The color can vary from greenish-brown to yellowish, and the belly is white. It presents oval black patches of variable size aligned along the body; often, one of these spots is located near the base of the upper lobe of the caudal fin.

Ecology

Carnivorous species, it feeds on fish and invertebrates. It lives on the banks of rivers and at the mouth of lakes. The meat is yellowish and has an excellent flavor.

  • Equipment – Medium/heavy equipment; lines 17, 20, 25 lb.; hooks from No. 2/0 to 6/0; and bottom line with leaded olive.
  • Bait – Filets or pieces of fish, such as freshwater sardines, lambaris and small curimbatás.

Lambari

Lambari
  • Popular Name – Lambari, Piaba
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Astianax spp.
  • Family – Characidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon, Araguaia-Tocantins, São Francisco, Prata and South Atlantic basins.

Description

Scale fish; small, rarely exceeding 20cm in total length; elongated and slightly compressed body. The color is quite varied; some species are very colorful.

Ecology

Omnivorous species feed on various plant and animal food items (flowers, fruits, seeds, insects, crustaceans, algae, debris, etc.); they live in various types of habitats. The smallest and most colorful are important as ornamental fish.

  • Equipment – Lightweight materials, both bamboo poles and reel poles. Lines can be from 2 to 6 lb.; and mosquito hooks are ideal.
  • Baits – Baits of cheese, noodles, insects, worms, pieces of fish.
  • Tips – During fishing, you must be very careful, because these little fish are very light and steal the bait easily.

Mandi

mandi
  • Popular Name – Mandi, Catfish, Surubim-catfish
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Pimelodus spp.
  • Family – Pimelodidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon, Araguaia-Tocantins (P. blochii), Prata (P. maculatus, P. ornatus), São Francisco and South Atlantic basins.

Description

Leather fish. There are several species of Pimelodus. The body shape is very similar: high at the beginning of the dorsal fin, tapering towards the head and caudal fin. A common feature of the genus is the presence of a strong, sharp aculeus on the dorsal and pectoral fins. The length varies from 20-50cm, depending on the species, and the color also varies with the species. The drawing is a Pimelodus maculatus. The coloration is brown on the dorsal region, changing to yellowish on the flanks and white on the belly. It presents 3 to 5 series of large dark spots along the body and spots on the fins. It reaches about 50cm in total length. In the Amazon and Araguaia-Tocantins basins, the most common species is P. blochii. The body shape is similar to that of P. maculatus, but the color is uniform yellowish. The size is also smaller: 20-30cm.

Ecology

Omnivorous fish, feed on fish, invertebrates, fruits/seeds, and debris. They live in the backwaters of the riverbanks. In the Amazon, P. blochii is a very common fish on riverbanks. As it is easily caught with a hook, it is important for subsistence fishing. Even though they are small fish, because of their abundance, these species are easily found in markets and fairs.

  • Equipment – Light/light medium type equipment; 10 to 14 lb. lines; and, hooks up to n° 2/0.
  • Baits – Natural baits, such as earthworms, small fish or in pieces, cheese.
  • Tips – These fish must be handled with care, as the spines of the dorsal and pectoral fins can cause painful
  • injuries.

Mandube

Mandube
  • Popular Name – Mandubé, Palmito, Fidalgo
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Ageneiosus brevifilis
  • Family – Ageneiosidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon, Araguaia-Tocantins and Prata Basins.

Description

Leather fish; tall and slightly compressed body; broad and flat head; and very big mouth. The eye is lateral and the branchial opening is small (characteristics of the family). The color is dark blue on the back, and the flank is yellowish, lightening towards the belly. Medium-sized species, reaching about 50cm in total length and 2.5kg. There are other species of the same genus, also known by the same common names, but they are not as common as A. brevities are smaller, and differ in color pattern.

Ecology

Carnivorous species feeds on fish and invertebrates (shrimps and insects). It lives along the rivers, in the backwaters between the rapids. It is highly appreciated as a food in some regions.

  • Equipment – The material is of the light type, with a reel or reel; line 0.30 to 0.40 lb; hooks from n° 2 to 8.
  • Bait – Pieces of fish (lambari, sauá etc.), earthworm, prawns, insects, beef heart and liver, and chicken tripe.

Matrixhan

Matrixhan
  • Popular Name – Matrinxã
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Brycon sp.
  • Family – Characidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon and Araguaia-Tocantins Basins.

Description

Scale fish; elongated body, a little tall and compressed. The color is silver, with the fins orange, the caudal fin being dark. It presents a dark rounded spot in the humeral region. Teeth are multicusped arranged in several rows in the upper jaw. It can reach 80cm in total length and 5kg.

Ecology

Omnivorous species: feeds on fruits, seeds, flowers, insects, and occasionally small fish. It carries out reproductive and trophic migrations. In clear water rivers, it is common to see schools of matrinxã, feeding under the trees, along the banks.

  • Equipment – Medium type equipment, with lines from 10 to 17 lb. and hooks from n° 2/0 to 6/0.
  • Baits – artificial baits, such as spoons and plugs; natural baits, fruits, flowers, insects, earthworm, heart and beef liver in strips.
  • Tips – It can be found in the rapids and backwaters of rivers. When hooked, the tendency is to take the bait upwards.

Pacu

Pacu
  • Popular Name – Pacu, Pacu-caranha
  • Scientific Name of Fish– Piaractus mesopotamicus
  • Family – Characidae
  • Geographical Distribution – La Plata Basin.

Description

Scale fish; rhomboidal and compressed body. Color is uniform, brown or dark gray; the belly is lighter, yellowish when the fish is alive. Teeth are molariform. It reaches about 50cm in total length.

Ecology

Omnivorous species, with a tendency to herbivore: it feeds on fruits/seeds, leaves, algae, and, more rarely, fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. It is considered one of the most sporting fish in the Pantanal and is also very important commercially.

  • Equipment – Fishing can be practiced in two ways: with a rod and reel/reel and using the hitting system. In this case, with a bamboo stick the bait, a coconut or dough ball, is tapped in order to reproduce the sound of a fruit falling close to the banks or to aquatic plants. The rod must be resistant, with 4 to 5 m in length, prepared with 0.60 to 0.70 mm line, hook with wide neck and short shank of n° 3/0 to 4/0 and wire tie, with approximately 5 cm. The use of lead is unnecessary. Using a reel, the rod should be medium to medium/heavy acting, for 14, 17 and 20 lb lines. and hooks from No. 3/0 to 6/0. To facilitate the casting and keep the bait at the bottom, the use of lead is recommended.
  • Baits – Only natural baits, such as tucum, laranjinha-de-pacu, pieces of genipap, crab, minhocuçu, sour curimbatá filet and cassava flour dough balls.
  • Tips – Usually fishing is on board, because it is necessary to reach the places where the fish live. Silence is very important in this type of fishing. It is recommended to tie the boat to the antlers and the fisherman needs to be very patient and wait for the fish to settle the bait in its mouth, otherwise it will miss the hook, letting it escape.

Pacus

Pacus
  • Popular name – Common Pacu, White Pacu, Butter Pacu, Rubber Pacu
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Mylossoma spp., Myleus spp., Metynnis spp., Myloplus spp.
  • Family – Characidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon, Araguaia-Tocantins, Prata and São Francisco Basins.

Description

Scale fish. There are several genera that are called pacu. The body is tall and very compressed; the shape is rounded or oval; the head and mouth are small; feature a serrated pre-ventral keel. Teeth are strong, sharp, or molar-like, arranged in one or two rows in both jaws. In some species, the first dorsal fin ray is a thorn. The scales are tiny, giving a silvery appearance. The color varies from species to species, but they are usually clear and may have different spots on the body and colored fins. Size ranges from 15-30cm depending on the species.

Ecology

In general, the species are herbivores, feed on plant material and algae, with a tendency to be frugivores. Some species can be found in rivers, lakes, and flooded forests, others in rocks and rapids. They are important in subsistence fishing. In the Amazon, M. duriventre (pacu-comum) forms shoals and goes down rivers to spawn, being important in local commercial fishing.

  • Equipment – Light/medium type equipment; 10 to 14 lb. lines; small sinker; small hooks. In beat fishing, a bamboo rod with a 25 to 30 lb line is used. and hooks up to no. 5/0.
  • Baits – Natural baits such as fruits/seeds, filamentous algae and earthworm.

Sink

Sink
  • Popular Name – Piapara, Piau
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Leporinus obtusidens
  • Family – Anostomidae
  • Geographical Distribution – La Plata Basin. In the São Francisco basin occurs the Leporinus elongatus also known as piapara.

Description

Scale fish; elongated body, a little high and fusiform; terminal mouth. Silver coloration, with a dark brown back and yellowish abdomen. It has three black spots on the sides of the body and yellowish fins. The pia para reaches an average of 40cm in total length and 1.5kg, with larger individuals reaching 80cm and 6kg. This species belongs to the Anostomidae family, which has a great diversity of genera and species with representatives in all Brazilian hydrographic basins, known as arcus (Amazon basin), pious (Araguaia-Tocantins, Paraná and São Francisco basin), piavuçu, Paiva, etc. . The difference of L. elongatus from the São Francisco basin is the position of the mouth, which is subinferior.

Ecology

It is a very common species in the Prata basin. It lives in rivers, in deep wells, and on the banks, in the mouths of lakes and streams. Omnivorous species, it feeds on vegetables and insects, adults and larvae. The vast majority of anostomids are omnivorous, feeding preferentially on invertebrates and fruits, but some species feed exclusively on filamentous algae, grassroots, or small fruits/seeds. Performs reproductive migration.

  • Equipment – Bamboo pole, in ravine fisheries, and medium action pole and reel for on-board fishing. The most used lines are from 12 to 14 lb., prepared with a light and loose anchor on the line, and a small hook.
  • Baits – The species is captured exclusively with natural baits, such as green or sour corn, dumplings, snails, etc.
  • Tips – To be successful in piapara fishing, some experience is needed. The fish usually take the bait gently and accommodate it in the mouth before running. If the fisherman gets flustered, he will lose him. To carry out a good fishing, it is necessary to make a barley with corn or flour dough to gather the fish in the place where you intend to fish. In boat fishing, the use of a cannon is very useful to keep fish nearby.

Piau-Flemish

Piau-Flemish
  • Popular Name – Piau-flamengo, Aracu-pinima
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Leporinus fasciatus; Leporinus aff. affinis
  • Family – Anostomidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon and Araguaia-Tocantins Basins.

Description

Scale fish; elongated and fusiform body; smallmouth and incisor teeth (characteristics of the family). The body color is yellowish, with 8-9 dark bands transversally over the body in L. fasciatus and 10-13, some not very defined, in L. aff. affinis; both with three headbands. The underside of the head is usually reddish and the fins are yellowish. They reach about 30cm in total length.

Ecology

Omnivorous species, with a tendency to be carnivores, consuming mainly invertebrates (insects). They are found on the banks of rivers, in places with a sandy and rocky bottom. They are important for subsistence fishing and for local businesses, markets, and fairs.

  • Equipment – Light equipment, 8 to 10 lb. lines, small hooks and light sinker. Bamboo rod in ravine fisheries.
  • Baits – Natural baits, such as insects, earthworms, corn, in addition to cheese and pasta.
  • Tips – It takes a lot of skill to hook these fish, as they are very skittish.

Piau-three-pints

Piau-three-pints
  • Popular Name – Piau-três-pintas, Common Aracu, Fat-head Aracu
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Leporinus friderici
  • Family – Anostomidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon, Araguaia-Tocantins and Prata Basins.

Description

Scale fish; elongated and fusiform body (characteristic of the family); terminal mouth, slightly inferior, with incisor teeth and no cusps. The color is gray, with three rounded spots on the flanks, the first being at the level of the dorsal fin, the second between the dorsal and the adipose, and the third at the base of the caudal fin. It reaches from 30 to 40cm in total length and 1.5kg.

Ecology

Omnivorous species, with a tendency to carnivore (mainly insects) or frugivorous (fruits and small seeds), depending on the food supply. It lives mainly on the banks of rivers, lakes, and in flooded forests. It is important for subsistence fishing and for local businesses, markets, and fairs.

  • Equipment – Light equipment, 8 to 10 lb. lines, small hooks and light sinker. Bamboo rod in ravine fisheries.
  • Baits – Natural baits, such as insects, earthworms, corn, in addition to cheese and pasta.
  • Tips – It takes a lot of skill to hook these fish, as they are very skittish.

Piavucu

Piavucu
  • Popular Name – Piavuçu
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Leporinus macrocephalus
  • Family – Anostomidae
  • Geographical Distribution – La Plata Basin.

Description

Scale fish; short and thick body; large and terminal mouth. The coloration is dark gray, mainly because of the dark lateral edge of the scales. Young individuals may have crossbars on their flanks; adults have three dark spots, elongated vertically, the most posterior being sometimes diffuse; very large individuals do not have bars or spots. Reaches 60cm in total length.

Ecology

Omnivorous species, with a tendency to herbivore; can be captured on the banks and in the channel of rivers, in bays, and downstream of waterfalls, especially in the vicinity of vegetation. In the Pantanal, it provides a lot of excitement in ravine fishing.

  • Equipment – Medium action rods with reel/reel; 12 to 14 lb. lines; hooks up to No. 2/0; and, light sinker. In ravine fisheries, the use of a bamboo pole is recommended.
  • Baits – Minhocuçu, snail, crab, corn and dough balls.
  • Tips – Especially when fishing with crab, the piavuçu has the habit of pinching the bait in parts, without getting too firm. For this reason, the fisherman has to be very attentive to the right moment to catch.

Painted

Painted
  • Popular Name – Painted/Speckled Catfish
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Pseudoplatystoma corruscans
  • Family – Pimelodidae
  • Geographical Distribution – La Plata and São Francisco Basins.

Description

Leather fish; elongated and plump body; large, flat head. Coloration is dark gray on the back, lightening towards the belly, and whitish below the lateral line. It can be separated from the other species of the genus by the pattern of spots: small, black, and rounded or oval, spread along the body, above and below the lateral line. Large species can reach more than 1m in total length.

Ecology

Fish-eating species. It occurs in various types of habitats such as lakes, beaches, and river channels. Perform spawn migrations. It is important in commercial and sport fishing.

  • Equipment – Medium/heavy type equipment, as it is a large fish; 17, 20, 25 to 30 lb lines. prepared with draws; and, hooks no. 6/0 and 10/0.
  • Baits – It is mainly captured with natural fish baits, such as sarapós, muçum, tuviras, lambaris, piaus, curimbatás, and minhocuçu. It can also be caught with artificial baits, such as midwater and bottom plugs, mainly in lakes, ponds and beaches, but in this case, the baits must be worked very close to the bottom.
  • Tips – The care when handling this fish must be doubled because of the spines of the dorsal and pectoral fins.

Piracanjuba

Piracanjuba
  • Popular Name – Piracanjuba
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Brycon orbignyanus
  • Family – Characidae
  • Geographical Distribution – La Plata Basin.

Description

Scale fish; silver-colored fusiform body with greenish reflections and red fins. It can reach 1m in total length and 5kg.

Ecology

Herbivorous species, it feeds on fruits/seeds, flowers, and leaves. It lives both in river channels and in areas close to the banks and in places with rapids. It is a very sporting fish and its pink flesh is of excellent quality. In some areas, capturing this species is becoming increasingly difficult.

  • Equipment – The most suitable equipment for capturing is the light/medium type. Lines can range from 8 to 14 lb., hooks from #1/0 to 3/0. For greater efficiency of the hooks, the rods must be fast acting and the use of an olive type sliding lead is recommended.
  • Baits – The most suitable baits for catching this species are natural, such as small whole fish or in pieces. Fruits, dumplings and corn kernels are also very popular.
  • Tips – Always have plenty of line available, because when it feels hooked, the piracanjuba comes out in a wild run and has a lot of breath, taking several meters of line before surrendering.

Piraiba

Piraiba
  • Popular Name – Piraíba, Puppy
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Brachyplathystoma filamentosum
  • Family – Pimelodidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon and Araguaia-Tocantins Basins.

Description

Leather fish; It has a plump body, depressed head, with small eyes situated on top. Their maxillary barbels are plump and very long, about twice the size of the body in young people and about 2/3 of the body in adults. The young have a light-colored body, with several dark and rounded macules in their upper terminal portion, which disappear as the fish grows. In adults, the color is dark gray-brown on the back and light on the belly. It can weigh 300kg and exceed 2m in total length, but currently, the captured specimens weigh under 120kg. Individuals weighing up to 60kg are known as cubs, above that weight, they are already called piraíba.

Ecology

It occurs in deep places, wells or backwaters, exits from rapids, and the confluence of large rivers. It is not a very popular fish for commercial fishermen, as many believe that its meat is harmful and transmits diseases. Also, the viscera and muscles of the body are often full of parasites.

  • Equipment – The equipment used is of the ultra-heavy type, due to the size of this fish. A medium-sized individual (about 100 to 150 kg) can take several hours fighting until they get tired.
  • Baits – Fish baits weighing from 1 to 6 kg, such as matrinxã, dog or piranha.
  • Tips – During various times of the year, it is possible to observe the piraíbas in the river channel, right on the surface of the water, but they are not captured. In the Amazon, caboclos usually catch this fish at the confluence of rivers. They tie a very strong rope and a large hook to the canoe, baited with a medium-sized fish and wait for the fish to arrive, which, when hooked, can tow the canoe for several kilometers. Depending on the strength and size of the fish, it is necessary to cut the rope so that the canoe does not overturn.

Black piranha

Black piranha
  • Popular Name – Black Piranha
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Serrasalmus rhombeus
  • Family – Characidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon and Araguaia-Tocantins Basins.

Description       

Scale fish; rhomboid and slightly compressed body; protruding jaw and sharp teeth. Color is uniform, ranging from gray to black in adult individuals; young ones are lighter with dark spots. It reaches 40cm in length and is the largest piranha in the Amazon.

Ecology

The black piranha occurs in clear and black water rivers and individuals are solitary. Carnivorous species feeds on fish and invertebrates.

  • Equipment – Medium type equipment; lines of 14, 17 and 20 lb.; and, hooks no. 3/0 to 6/0.
  • Bait – Fish in pieces, viscera and artificial half water baits.
  • Tips – The fisherman must be very careful when handling this fish, as any carelessness can end up in a serious accident.

Red Piranha

Red Piranha
  • Popular Name – Red Piranha, Piranha-caju
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Pygocentrus nattereri
  • Family – Characidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon Basins, Araguaia-Tocantins, Prata, São Francisco, Northeastern reservoirs.

Description

Scale fish; rhomboid and compressed body; short, rounded muzzle, protruding jaw, and sharp teeth. Among all the piranhas, it has the bluntest snout. The color is gray on the back and reddish on the belly and underside of the head; the pectoral, ventral, and anal fins are orange. Reaches 30cm in total length.

Ecology

The red piranha is the most common species. It occurs in lakes and lakes with muddy waters and lives in small schools or even with more than 100 individuals. It is a piscivorous species and, as it forms large schools, it can be dangerous in certain situations. In some regions, the red piranha is very popular, mainly to make the famous piranha broth, considered an aphrodisiac.

  • Equipment – Medium type equipment; 14, 17, and 20 lb. lines; and, hooks from No. 3/0 to 6/0.
  • Bait – Fish in pieces, viscera and artificial half water baits.
  • Tips – The fisherman must be very careful when handling this fish, as any carelessness can end up in a serious accident.

Pirapitinga

Pirapitinga
  • Popular Name – Pirapitinga, Caranha
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Piaractus brachypomus
  • Family – Characidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon and Araguaia-Tocantins Basins.

Description

Scale fish; rhomboidal, tall, and compressed body; adipose fin without rays; Small head; molariform teeth. The color is uniform purplish-gray in adults and light gray with orange spots in young people. It can reach 80cm in total length and 20kg, although specimens of this size are not common.

Ecology

Herbivorous species, with a tendency to frugivore. It remains in rivers during the dry season and enters flooded lakes, ponds, and forests during floods, where it is common to find it under trees feeding on the fruits/seeds that fall into the water. It is important in commercial fisheries and sport fishing.

  • Equipment – The most recommended equipment is the medium/heavy and heavy type for large specimens. Lines must be 17, 20, 25 and 30 lb. Short draws should be used, because of the pirapitinga’s teeth and small mouth. The hooks must vary from numbers 2/0 to 8/0.
  • Baits – The baits must be fruits/seeds of the region, those preferred by the species, and earthworms.
  • Tips – Fishing with a hook is easier when the fish is hitting. The wormwood bait, for example, must be thrown when the fish hits it.

Piraputanga

  • Popular Name – Piraputanga
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Brycon microleps; brycon hilarii
  • Family – Characidae
  • Geographical Distribution – La Plata (B. microleps) and São Francisco (B. hilarii) Basins

Description

Scale fish; elongated and slightly compressed body. Soon after being removed from the water, the color is yellowish, the caudal fin is red, with a black band that starts at the caudal peduncle and reaches the central rays of the caudal fin. The other fins are orange. The scales on the back are light in the center, with dark edges. They have a dark, rounded humeral spot. They reach about 50cm in total length and 2.5kg; overweight individuals are rare. Traditionally, the Piraputanga from the Prata basin has been identified as Brycon hilarii, but this name applies only to the species from the São Francisco River.

Ecology

Omnivorous species feed on fish, fruits, and seeds. They live in rapids and backwaters, under fruit trees, and close to aquatic plants. They have commercial and sporting importance.

  • Equipment – The poles used must be light or light/medium action from 6 to 12 lb. The hooks are small (n° 2/0) and the lead must be light, as they are half water species.
  • Baits – You can use natural baits, berries and small fish that make up the diet of these fish, and artificial baits, such as spinners and small half-water plugs.
  • Tips – The best places for fishing are the small streams, the borders with fruit trees and close to aquatic plants.

Pirarara

Pirarara
  • Popular Name – Pirarara
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Phractocephalus hemioliopterus
  • Family – Pimelodidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon and Araguaia-Tocantins Basins.

Description

Large leather fish. It is characterized by a huge, strongly ossified head with a bony plate located before the dorsal fin. It is one of the most colorful leather fish in the Amazon. Its coloration is very beautiful, with a greenish-brown back, yellowish flanks, and whitish belly. The dorsal and caudal fins are orange. It can reach more than 1.50m in total length and more than 50kg.

Ecology

It occurs in the river channel, in wells right after the rapids, floodplains, and igapós, including in the black and clear water tributaries, reaching the headwaters and part of the Amazon estuary. It feeds on fish, fruits, and crabs. It has a reputation for attacking human beings, especially children.

  • Equipment – Heavy-duty type equipment with 30 to 50 lb lines. The most used hooks are from n° 8/0 to 14/0, due to the large mouth of the pirarara.
  • Bait – This species is captured exclusively with natural baits, whole fish or in fillets, for example, of traíra or piranha-caju.
  • Tips – Can be caught in the gutter and at the confluence of rivers, especially in the dry season. Prefer areas that don’t have a lot of entanglement so you don’t run the risk of losing the fish.

Saicanga

Saicanga
  • Popular Name – Saicanga, Fish-dog, Ueua
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Acestrorrynchus spp.
  • Family – Characidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon, Araguaia-Tocantins, Prata and São Francisco Basins.

Description

Tiny-scale fish; elongated body, a little compressed; dorsal fin in the posterior portion of the body; long muzzle; big mouth; canine teeth. Light coloration, with a dark spot at the base of the caudal fin, may present another spot behind the operculum. The largest species reach about 35cm in total length.

Ecology

Fish-eating fish. They live in stagnant or low current waters. They are not commercially important and have little importance in sport fishing.

  • Equipment – Ultra light/light equipment, lines up to 8 lb., small hooks and small steel tie.
  • Bait – Pieces of fish, earthworm, small half-water plugs and spinners.

Surubim-Whip

Surubim-Whip
  • Popular Name – Surubim-whip, Surubim-wood, Fish-wood
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Sorubimichthys planiceps
  • Family – Pimelodidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon and Araguaia-Tocantins Basins

Description

Leather fish; large, can reach more and 1.50m in total length. Very elongated and plump body; flathead and wider than the rest of the body; rounded snout, with the upper jaw being larger than the mandible leaving a plaque of tiny teeth to appear when the mouth is closed; long barbels. The color is dark gray, with light and narrowband extending from the pectoral fin to the middle of the caudal fin. Mainly the dorsal region and the fins are covered with dark spots.

Ecology

It lives in river beds, consuming mainly fish. It performs reproductive migration and spawns at the beginning of the flood. It has relative commercial importance, since, despite its size, it does not reach much weight due to its large head and very thin body. It is found in local markets and cold stores.

  • Equipment – Medium/heavy equipment; lines between 20-25 lb.; hooks No. 4/0-8/0; and, bottom line with leaded olive.
  • Baits – Natural baits, such as tuvira and other fish, whole and in pieces, and earthworm.

Tabarana

Tabarana
  • Popular Name – Tabarana, Tubarana, Golden-white
  • Scientific Name of Fish – Salminus hilarii
  • Family – Characidae
  • Geographical Distribution – São Francisco, Prata and Araguaia-Tocantins Basins.

Description

Scale fish; medium-sized species, about 40cm in total length. The muzzle is pointed and the mouth terminal with conical teeth in two rows, both in the upper and lower jaw. The color is greenish-gray and the fins reddish. The caudal fin has a dark band in the central region. It presents a spot in the humeral region and at the base of the caudal fin.

Ecology

Fish-eating species. Lives normally in current places.

  • Equipment – The equipment used is of the medium type; lines 14, 17, 20; and hooks from n°
    1/0 to 5/0. It is recommended to use steel draws of at least 20cm, as this fish has very sharp teeth.
  • Bait – Can be caught with whole fish or in pieces (lambaris, tuviras, curimbatás, etc.) and with artificial baits, such as half water plugs, poppers and propellers.
  • Tips – Usually jumps out of the water when hooked, but tends to get tired. The fisherman must be careful when releasing this fish, because of the sharp teeth. It does not have the habit of looking for entanglement, which makes it easier to catch.

Tambaqui

Tambaqui
  • Popular Name – Tambaqui
  • Scientific Name of Fish– Colossoma macropomum
  • Family – Characidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon Basin.

Description

Scale fish; rhomboidal body; short adipose fin with rays at the tip; long and numerous molariform teeth and gill tracks. Coloration is usually brown on the upper half and black on the lower half of the body but may vary to lighter or darker depending on the color of the water. The fingerlings are light gray with dark spots scattered on the upper half of the body. The tambaqui reaches about 90cm in total length. In the past, specimens weighing up to 45kg were captured. Today, because of overfishing, there are practically no individuals of this size.

Ecology

A migratory species, it carries out reproductive, trophic, and dispersal migrations. During the flood season, it enters the flooded forest, where it feeds on fruits/seeds. During the drought, young individuals stay in floodplain lakes where they feed on zooplankton and adults migrate to muddy rivers to spawn. At that time, they do not eat, living on the fat they accumulated during the full season. One of the most important commercial species in central Amazonia.

  • Equipment – The most recommended equipment is the medium/heavy type, and heavy for large specimens. Lines must be 17, 20, 25 and 30 lb. You should use short draws, because of the tambaqui’s teeth and small mouth. The hooks must vary from n° 2/0 to 8/0.
  • Baits – The baits must be fruits of the region, those preferred by the species, and earthworms.
  • Tips – Fishing with a hook is easier when the fish is hitting. The wormwood bait, for example, must be thrown when the fish hits it.

Tilapia

Tilapia
  • Popular Name – Tilapia
  • Scientific Name – Tilapia rendali, Oreochromis niloticus
  • Family – Cichlid
  • Geographical Distribution – Species from Africa, introduced in almost all of Brazil.

Description

Scale fish; body a little tall and compressed. There are about 100 species of tilapia, distributed in three genera, Oreochromis, Sarotherodon, and Tilapia. In Brazil, three species were introduced: Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) which can reach about 5kg; Tilapiarendali (tilápiarendali) weighing about 1kg; Sarotherodon hornorum (Zanzibar tilapia) with dark color and protractile jaws; and a variety developed in Israel, “Saint-Peters”, which is currently being cultivated.

Ecology

Tilapia are opportunistic species that have a great ability to adapt to lentic environments. Furthermore, they support large temperature variations and tolerate low levels of dissolved oxygen. Feeding can vary depending on the species: they can be omnivorous, herbivorous, or phytoplanktophagous. Some species reproduce from six months of age onwards, and spawning can occur more than four times a year. As they protect the offspring, the survival rate is quite high.

  • Equipment – Light and light/medium action sticks; 8 to 12 lb. lines; hooks from no. 12 to 20.
  • Baits – Baits of corn, earthworm, pasta, chicken casing, insect larvae etc. They are also captured with surface and half water plugs and spinners.

Betray

Betray
  • Popular Name – Traíra
  • Scientific Name – Hoplias malabaricus
  • Family – Erythrynidae
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon, Araguaia-Tocantins, São Francisco, Prata and South Atlantic basins.

Description

Scale fish; cylindrical body; big mouth; canine teeth, very sharp; big eyes; and rounded fins, except the dorsal one. Color is brown or black flecked with gray. It reaches around 60cm in total length and 3kg.

Ecology

A voracious, solitary predator that can be found in still waters, lakes, ponds, swamps, flooded forests, and in streams and creeks, usually among aquatic plants, where prey such as fish, frogs, and insects lie in wait. It’s more active at night. Despite the excess of pimples, in some regions, it is very popular as a food.

  • Equipment – Light equipment; 10 to 20 lb. lines; hooks from 1/0 to 6/0; the use of draws is recommended.
  • Baits – Natural baits: fish and chicken offal. Artificial baits such as spinnerbaits, spinners, poppers and rubber frogs are also widely used.
  • Tips – When fishing with natural baits, use lead above the bait and hit the water. The noise attracts the traíras and makes fishing more productive.

Will betray

Will betray
  • Popular Name – Trairão
  • Scientific Name – Hoplias lacerdae and Hoplias macrophthalmus
  • Family – Erythrynidae
  • Geographical Distribution – In the Amazon basin (headwater areas of the tributaries) and Tocantins-Araguaia there is H. macrophthalmus and in the Prata basin (upper Paraguay) H. lacerdae.

Description

Scale fish; cylindrical body. It can reach 20kg and more than 1m in total length, but specimens of this size are difficult to find. The color is almost black on the back, the sides are grayish and the belly is whitish.

Ecology

Piscivorous species, very voracious. It lives on the banks of rivers and lakes/ponds in shallow areas with vegetation and branches.

  • Equipment – Medium/heavy equipment; 17, 20, and 25 lb. lines; #6/0 to 8/0 hooks, embedded with wire or overcapped steel cable from 50 to 100 lbs.
  • Baits – Natural baits, such as pieces of fish (dogs, matrinxã, curimbatá, etc.). Artificial baits are also widely used, especially surface and half water plugs, spinnerbaits and spoons.
  • Tips – Be very careful when removing the hook from the traitor’s mouth because the bite is strong and the teeth are sharp.

Rainbow trout

Rainbow trout
  • Popular Name – Rainbow Trout
  • Scientific Name – Oncorhynchus mykiss
  • Family – Salmonidae
  • Geographical Distribution – The species is native to the United States, Canada and Alaska, but has already been introduced on all continents. In Brazil, it was introduced mainly in mountain rivers in the Southeast and South regions.

Description

Scale fish; elongated and a little compressed. It reaches about 60cm in total length and 2kg. The color of the back varies from brown to greenish, the sides are grayish and the belly is whitish. It has dark spots all over the body and fins.

Ecology

It lives in small rivers with cold and oxygenated water, in rapids, wells, and backwaters. Carnivorous species, it feeds on fish and insects. The meat is of excellent quality. Very sporty fish.

  • Equipment – Light and ultra-light equipment and in fly mode; lines ranging from 4 to 10 lb.
  • Bait – artificial baits, such as small spinners and spoons, small half-water plugs; and in the modality of fly, flies and nymphs.
  • Tips – When practicing catch-and-release, avoid catching the fish by hand. In the last case, use the puça.

Peacock bass

Peacock bass
  • Popular name – Peacock bass (peacock bass; peacock bass, peacock bass; peacock bass; red peacock bass; blue peacock bass; fire peacock bass; peacock bass; peacock bass)
  • Scientific Name – Cichla spp.
  • Family – Cichlid
  • Geographical Distribution – Amazon and Araguaia-Tocantins basins, but it was introduced in the reservoirs of the Prata basin, in some areas of the Pantanal, in the São Francisco river and in reservoirs in the Northeast and Southeast. There are variations in size, weight and color depending on the region found.

Description

Scale fish; elongated and slightly compressed body. There are at least 14 species of peacock bass in the Amazon, five of which are described: Cichla ocellaris, C. temensis, C. monoculus, C. orinocensis, and C. intermedia. The size (adult specimens can measure 30cm or more than 1m in total length), the color (can be yellowish, greenish, reddish, bluish, almost black, etc.), and the shape and number of spots (can be large, black and vertical; or white spots regularly distributed over the body and fins, etc.) vary widely from species to species. All peacock bass have a round spot (ocele) on the caudal peduncle.

Ecology

Sedentary species (do not migrate), that live in lakes/ponds (enter the flooded forest during the flood) and in the mouths and banks of rivers. They form couples and reproduce in lentic environments, where they build nests and care for their offspring. They have daytime habits. They feed mainly on fish and shrimp. They are the only species of fish in the Amazon that chase prey, that is, after starting the attack, they do not give up until they catch them, which makes them one of the most sporting fish in Brazil. Almost all other predatory fish give up after the first or second unsuccessful attempt. All species are important commercially and in sport fishing.

  • Equipment – Medium to medium/heavy action rods, with 17, 20, 25 and 30 lb lines and hooks from n° 2/0 to 4/0, without the use of draws. The use of a thick line starter is recommended to avoid losing fish in the antlers.
  • Bait – Natural (fish and shrimp) and artificial baits. Virtually all types of artificial baits can attract peacock bass, but surface plug fishing is the most exciting. Peacock bass “explode” on the surface of the water to capture the little fish.
  • Tips –  When fishing with artificial bait, try to keep the bait moving, because the peacock bass can attack the bait a few times before being caught. Never stop the work of the bait even if the fish has not been hooked, peacock bass usually walk in shoals and more than one fish can be hooked.

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